Eutrem Japanese - "Japanese horseradish" wasabi
Luscious food without spices. Its taste is often changed by seasonings from various spice-flavoring plants: specific herbs, roots, seeds, stems, leaves, vegetables, fruits, and other representatives of the plant world. From about the 12th century AD, another spicy-flavoring plant has been included in the group of Japanese cuisine. It is an appetizer that gives Japanese dishes an exquisite taste. Legend has it that the unknown burning wasabi root liked the future Shogun from Shizuoka. And for more than 800 years, first in Japan, and then around the world, this plant is used as a seasoning under the name horseradish japanese or eutrem japanese.
Eutrem Japanese in life is often called wasabi, referring to seasoning with that name. As a plant, wasabi is a type of eutrem (Eutrema wasabi or Wasabia japonica) with burning aromatic rhizomes. Japanese eutrem or wasabi has a huge bouquet of useful properties and is used in the manufacture of seasonings for dishes and medicines for the treatment of many diseases.
Classification and biological features of the Japanese eutrem
Japanese eutrem has more than 10 synonyms in the scientific literature. In various classifications, it belongs to the cabbage (cruciferous) family. In the family, the genus Eutrem and the species Eutrem are Japanese (Eutrema japonicum) Sometimes called Japanese eutrem green mustard, for the taste of mustard, due to the high content of mustard oils. Since 2005, the eutrem was entered in the Red Book of the Russian Federation Sakhalin (Eutrema japonicum) and Chelyabinsk (Eutrema cordifolium) areas.
Japanese eutrem belongs to the group of perennial herbaceous plants, up to 45-50 cm high. The stems are straight green grassy. The leaves are typical green, heart-shaped, simple, long-leaved. The location is next. At the base of the stems, the leaf blade is up to 6-12 cm wide, and decreases up the stalk. The root system consists of rhizomes and subordinate roots, which, like leaves with stems, have a specific aroma due to the high content of essential oils that have the smell of horseradish (garden spicy-flavor culture).
A biological feature is the very slow growth of the rhizome - not more than 3 cm per year. Eutrem begins to acquire its properties in the second half of the 2nd year. Rhizome is considered mature only after 3-4 years of cultivation. By this time, its thickness reaches 5-15 cm in diameter, 15-25 cm in length and acquires a characteristic smell and a sharp burning taste. The features of the culture include a different level of severity in the upper, middle and lower parts of the rhizome. On this basis, a real wasabi is distinguished from fakes of cunning chefs. The flowers are white 4-lobed, on high peduncles rise above the green leaf mass. Seeds are rounded elongated, covered with a dense shell of light green color.
Eutrams are typical Asians. Currently, the distribution area of the Japanese eutrem has expanded significantly. Japanese eutrem or wasabi is grown in Taiwan, in America, in New Zealand. Increasingly, eutrem appears in private gardens in areas with a temperate warm climate in the Russian Federation. However, the plant not always grown in the garden is authentic wasabi. Japanese horseradish grown in garden culture is a garden vegetable that has the smell and taste of Japanese eutrem and only part of its special properties. The Japanese believe that genuine eutrem or genuine wasabi grows only in the running water of mountain streams, and they call these plants "honwasabi" or real wasabi. It is grown in such conditions, the Asian exot has a set of valuable properties that have a therapeutic effect on the human body.
The benefits and harms of wasabi
- It is known that the Japanese cuisine is 70-80% composed of seafood, which also includes different types of fish. It is no secret that the highest invasion of worms and worms is precisely fish. But oddly enough, eating the sushi from raw fresh marine products, the Japanese practically do not become infected with marine parasites. It turns out that round and flat worms in raw fish die in a spicy sauce made from the burning roots of a real wasabi.
- Residents of countries that constantly use wasabi sauces or Japanese etrems as seasonings do not suffer from gastrointestinal diseases.
- Eutrem Japanese has a large list of medicinal properties. For therapeutic purposes, directly use the rhizome, stems and leaves of plants. The content in the rhizome of calcium, potassium, magnesium and manganese, vitamins "C" and "B6", synegrin and a group of isothiocyanates contributes to the effective treatment of asthma and respiratory diseases of a cold nature.
- Isothiocyanates (mustard oils) contained in the rhizomes are effective in combating staphylococcus, fungal and bacterial diseases. They treat (according to the doctors from the Institute of Tatikawa, Father Honshu) benign and oncological tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, mammary glands, and colon.
- The substances contained in the vegetative organs of Japanese horseradish prevent the development of caries.
- Essential oils of wasabi roots and leaves are used to prevent thrombosis of the human circulatory system.
Seasoning wasabi refers to very spicy dishes and is contraindicated in inflammatory processes in the intestines and stomach with high acidity. Wasabi, like all hot seasonings and snacks, can not be used as food for diseases of the liver and kidneys.
How to grow a Japanese eutrem at home
Eutrem Japanese is a surprisingly moody plant. Sharp-burning rhizomes of eutrem love the streams of icy water of mountain streams, and the aboveground mass does not tolerate a cold climate.
For the normal growth and development of the Japanese etreme, a moderately warm climate is needed. In natural conditions, eutrem grows better in the shade of trees, with high humidity, on well-drained soils. With thickening of plantings, the eutrem begins to become sick with fungal diseases. Required conditions can be recreated in the greenhouses of temperate regions. In hot climates, eutrem can be grown in open ground, but under shelter from sunlight. When the temperature limits change, the plants cover the fabric from overheating and mulch during cooling.
Soil condition requirement
In regions with frequent temperature changes, eutrem is best grown in sheltered ground. To do this, select the area in the greenhouse, prepare sandy soil with a high organic content. For about 4-5 parts of sand mixed with gravel, add 3 parts of turf and 2 parts of leafy soil, 1 part of humus or compost. Mix well. Check the pH level, which should fluctuate between 6-7.
The resulting soil mixture, add to the prepared area. Check drainage conditions and water absorption rate. Pour abundantly and see if the water leaves quickly, and a layer of 20-25 cm remains moist, without burning mud, which means that the soil is prepared correctly.
Sulfur is a vital element for the normal passage of biochemical processes in eutrem plants. The high content of mustard and other vegetable oils, as well as essential amino acids, vitamins, the passage of active protein metabolism, require a sufficient amount of sulfur. Therefore, add ammonium sulfate (ammonium sulfate) at a rate of 30-40 g / sq. m. Fertilizer can be made under digging or in top dressing. Remember, this fertilizer acidifies the soil. Systematically check the pH level, and if it deviates from the norm, add compost, humus and other additives that will fluff and deoxidize the soil. For digging the soil, you can use nitroammophoska in the same dose as ammonium sulfate, but during the growing season it is necessary to use sulfur fertilizer in top dressing.
When cultivating the eutrem in open ground, place the plants near an artificial waterfall or small river with running water. Spray from the waterfall will create the necessary conditions for air humidity, and the constantly changing water of an artificial rivulet will ensure soil moisture without flooding the soil. There is no such possibility, just maintain the humidity of the soil and air by systematic watering and spraying plants through small mud flaps (with a small number of bushes you can use a spray bottle). Before sowing the eutrem, do not forget to disinfect the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Eutrem requirements for landing and care
Japanese eutrem seeds can be purchased through online stores and planted in prepared soil. Before planting, soak the seeds in warm purified water for 6-8 hours. Water will soften the dense shell of the seed, which will accelerate the emergence of seedlings. Seeds are sown in an ordinary way at a distance of 3-5 cm in a row, withstanding 20-25 cm of aisle. Fortified seedlings are planted at a distance of 30-50 cm, so that adult plants have adequate ventilation. Thickened plantings will be constantly affected by pathogenic microflora.
Throughout the growing season, keep the soil moist by daily irrigation with fresh, cool water (simulate river running water). Fading seedlings - a sign of insufficient watering. In hot, dry weather, spray 2 times a day.
Permanent moisture contributes to the rapid spread of mold and bacterial infection. Carefully monitor the condition of the plants. Remove wilted plants immediately from the garden.
Eutrem cannot stand the weed neighborhood. Plants, especially young shoots, need to be weeded daily and kept clean during the entire cultivation period.
Harvesting and storage of wasabi crops
In the first year, the aerial mass of the eutrem increases relatively quickly. By the end of the 2-year plant has 40-60 cm dimensions of aboveground mass. Her growth is suspended. All nutrients the plant directs to the formation of an underground stem - rhizomes.
Under a 2-3 year old plant, dig and separate 1 root. Measure the length and thickness. Rhizome is considered ripe and ready for harvest, if it is at least 15 cm in length and 5-10 cm in diameter.
If you grow a eutrem for your family, do not harvest the entire crop at once, but dig up the ripened rhizomes as needed. Thus, it is possible to grow only a few bushes, which is much easier than to maintain (albeit a small) plantation of these capricious plants.
The remaining plants in the garden are propagated by self-sowing of ripened seeds. Self-seeding will replace harvested plants and save you from the annual sowing. Plant grown seedlings, leaving the right amount on the bed.
Eutrem grown at home in terms of taste will repeat plants living in natural conditions.
Fresh rhizomes are stored in the refrigerator for no more than 1.5-2.0 months and begins to decay. Better and longer stored rhizome in the form of wasabi powder. To do this, peel the fresh root to the core, finely chop and dry. Grind in a coffee grinder into powder. Store in tight packaging without moisture. If necessary, seasoning can be prepared not only from fresh rhizomes, but also from powder.
Making Wasabi Powder
To prepare 1 serving of seasoning from real wasabi powder, it is enough to pour 1 teaspoon of the powder into a small container, add 1 teaspoon of warm water and quickly mix the mixture. Get a thick pasty mass of green. Transfer the resulting paste to a flat saucer. Spoon the shape and leave for 5-10 minutes. Seasoning will thicken even more, taste and aroma will become more pronounced.
Cooking Wasabi from Fresh Root
Using a fresh root to make the sauce or seasoning, remove the leaves. Cut the desired amount from the upper third of the rhizome for a spicy seasoning. Less acute is obtained from the middle and lower parts of the rhizome. Peel the surface to the core. Grate on the smallest grater, transfer to a flat saucer and form any shape with a spoon. Leave for 5-10 minutes to “ripen” and serve.
If you want to try a real wasabi seasoning, grow a Japanese eutrem in your garden. You will not regret the time spent and work. The taste and aroma of this wasabi seasoning are unique.