Indoor Persimmon - Features of Growing
The divine sweetness and texture of the persimmon fruit conquered many hearts. And those who love fruit plants on the windowsill, probably more than once wanted to try to grow their own persimmons from seed. In a room culture, persimmon also bears fruit abundantly, and its decorativeness due to its formation is revealed from a new perspective. But persimmon is growing very quickly.
- The botanical features of persimmons
- Types of persimmons for growing in rooms
- Conditions for growing indoor persimmons
- Persimmon care at home
- Diseases, pests and growing problems
- Persimmon propagation
The botanical features of persimmons
Fruiting indoor plants are becoming more popular. The ability to grow at least not a large, but own crop of your favorite fruit or berries, observing a plant that goes through a full cycle from the dormant period to the ripening of colorful berries and fruits is a particular pleasure. Typically, fruit species of indoor plants are chosen for those growers who love to grow plants from seeds or want to move to a new level in growing indoor plants.
Lemons, tangerines, pomegranates, coffee, tea bushes, laurels, pineapples on window sills become a special pride of any grower. In the list of fruit-bearing indoor plants, you can safely include persimmon - a very special berry in our menu.
Persimmon is a large genus of trees and shrubs that can be grown only in subtropical and tropical climates. Japan and China are rightfully considered the natural distribution area of this culture, from where the majority of modern compact varieties have come to us. In conditions of the middle strip, this plant can be grown only as a tub or pot - indoor, greenhouse or garden.
Persimmon is much less common in room culture than citrus fruits or pomegranates. But those who risk planting unusual plant bones in the soil often discover the unexpected decorative talents of this plant.
Rod Persimmon (Diospyros) represents a unique ebony family (Ebenaceae). Belonging to special trees and shrubs is easy to recognize by the picturesqueness of the plant, and by the special beauty of the bark.
At us, and throughout the world, persimmon has earned many admired nicknames. It is often called the plum of the gods, because the surprisingly sweet fruits cause only admiration, they are unique both in taste and texture. From Latin, the name persimmon is translated as "food of the gods." Persimmon is also known under the names of date plums and wild dates.
The appearance of the plant
Persimmon is famous for its fruits, and the appearance of the plants themselves, which give us tasty, juicy and so special in texture fruits, remains a mystery to many. In nature, persimmons are powerful, deciduous trees or bushes with a maximum height of up to 12 m.
Indoor persimmon is much more compact than fruit trees. It is limited to a maximum of 1.5 m in height. Usually these are more compact trees and shrubs, the sizes of which are controlled by forming pruning. Persimmon is characterized by a muffled grayish bark and very beautiful bends of sparsely branching shoots.
Persimmon belongs to deciduous crops. It discards leaves even before the fruits ripen, but this does not prevent the plant from remaining highly decorative. Leaves with a dark, noble shade of green color create an elegant crown. Width up to 6 cm with a length of 12 cm allows them to look and catchy, and quite elegant. Before the leaf fall begins, the leaves begin to dazzle, unevenly repainting in ever brighter shades of carmine and red.
Persimmon flowering and fruiting
The persimmon flowering period is traditionally in June. Among persimmons there are both dioecious, and monoecious varieties. Male flowers are small, collected in small bunches on short pedicels. But the female flowers are quite large, original and always solitary, surprising with an oily-waxy surface, fleshy, large bracts and bizarrely curving corolla petals.
The diameter of persimmon fruits in indoor conditions reaches 8 cm. They are easy to recognize for anyone who has tried this favorite oriental delicacy. Fleshy, juicy, with thin skin, easily injured when fully ripe, orange or reddish-brown, with a waxy coating and spots, almost round (length slightly exceeds width), with a flattened top and beautiful stalks, persimmon fruits look very impressive even in room format.
The jelly-like texture of the pulp, which is famous for persimmons, the subtlest aroma, unique sweetness, high content of vitamins and microelements - advantages that seem to intensify several times in room persimmon. Indeed, the ability to sample fruits directly from a tree makes them even more attractive.
The fruits ripen, usually by October-November, with a difference of several weeks between varieties. The first fruiting in a fast-growing plant can be expected already in the third or fourth year during vaccination and under ideal growing conditions. Without this persimmon bears fruit at least 2-3 years later.
Persimmon fruits contain from 2 to 10 seeds.
Types of persimmons for growing in rooms
As indoor plants, only varietal persimmons are grown. After a long selection and having much smaller dimensions, the varieties of the best fruiting persimmon species do not lose the ability to please the harvest even in rooms. The right choice of variety is considered the main factor determining success in the cultivation of this shrub.
When buying persimmon seeds or choosing a plant for growing in rooms, you should pay attention to the varieties of the most common types:
- persimmons of the Caucasian, or Ordinary (Diospyros lotus);
- persimmons Virgin (Diospyros virginiana);
- persimmons Eastern (Diospyros kaki).
When choosing a variety for growing in a room, it is better to focus on taste and the presence of only female or female and male flowers:
- The most delicious, without viscosity (astringency), sweet and fragrant varieties of persimmons are considered Fuyu, "XX century" and "Chinebuli". Depending on the pollinating plant, the sweet taste is changed from a lower to a higher viscosity. Hiakume, Zenji Maru, Gailly, Gosho-gaki, Tsurunako. Fans of classic persimmons with pronounced astringency will more like the fruits of the varieties Tamapan, Sidles, "Khachia" and "Tanenami".
- Among bisexual varieties, favorites are considered Zenji Maru and Gailly, rarely, but produce male flowers of a variety plant Fuyu, only female or only male are characteristic of varieties very well adapted to the pot culture Hiakume, Hachia, Gosho-gaki.
Conditions for growing indoor persimmons
Indoor conditions for this fruit plant require, first of all, bright lighting. Except for the obligatory cold period of rest, this plant is not demanding for temperatures. It is not always easy to choose the conditions in the apartment, but this plant makes much more demands on care than on placement.
Lighting and placement
Persimmon, like all fruit-bearing crops, is a photophilous plant. The brighter the lighting, the greater the likelihood of success in growing. For persimmons, sunny places are preferred. In the summer, it is better to protect the plant from midday rays. In partial shade, persimmon quickly loses its decorative effect and most often dies. Lighting for this plant does not matter only during the dormant period: in the cold, persimmon can be kept even in a dark room.
For persimmons, the southern or partially southern window sill or a place on the floor in the immediate vicinity of the southern window is considered the best place. Because of the photophilicity, indoor persimmons are not placed inside the interior. Like all indoor fruit crops, persimmon feels great in the kitchen and in large living rooms.
Temperature and ventilation
During the period of active growth, persimmon develops well in any room or hotter conditions. There is no need to control temperatures from spring to mid-autumn. For flowering and fruiting persimmons, it is much more important to provide a cool wintering. The plant prefers a stable temperature of about 5 degrees Celsius throughout the winter. The maximum allowable air temperature during the rest period is +10 degrees. Hypothermia is best avoided, but short frosts are acceptable.
In the summer, persimmons will happily settle on the street. Protection from drafts and direct sun are the only measures that will be needed when growing outdoors. When brought to balconies and to the garden, indoor persimmons are gradually accustomed to new conditions, slightly shading or bringing into the room during the first 2 weeks and increasing the time spent in the fresh air in the same way as when hardening flower seedlings.
Persimmon belongs to those rare plants that are not afraid of temperature differences. At the fruiting stage, lowering the temperature helps to improve the taste of the fruits and accelerate their ripening. But persimmon cannot stand the neighborhood with air conditioners and heating devices.
Persimmon care at home
For room persimmons no less than the correct temperature conditions of maintenance, careful care is also important. This plant is capricious, afraid of waterlogging of the soil, loves high humidity. The pruning, without which you can’t create a beautiful tree, does not simplify worries about this plant. Indoor persimmon is an option for gardeners who have experience growing other fruit-bearing crops.
Watering and humidity
The key to maintaining high decorativeness of this plant is regular watering. For persimmons, it is important to ensure stable substrate moisture. Persimmon is very sensitive to waterlogging, most often dies with too generous watering, but droughts at the stage of flowering and fruiting are no less dangerous for it.
When the leaves fall and fruiting is completed, the plant is switched to an almost dry regime, excluding watering from the care program and replacing them with light periodic spraying or conducting light watering, which simply does not allow the substrate to completely dry out during cold wintering.
For watering persimmons use soft, warm water. It is especially important to avoid hypothermia of an earthen coma at the stage of budding, flowering and fruit setting.
Special measures to increase the humidity indicators of persimmons will not be needed, and when it is possible to maintain at least a medium-moist environment, fruiting occurs faster and the plant blooms much more abundantly.
Persimmon loves spraying. These regular procedures, especially in hot summers, allow persimmons to maintain high decorative leaves. Spraying is continued even during wintering, reducing their frequency and using spraying as an alternative to watering.
Fertilizing and fertilizer composition
As with most indoor crops, persimmon fertilizers will be needed only during the period of active growth and fruiting. For this plant, the standard frequency of fertilizing is suitable - 1 time in 2 weeks.
For persimmons, you need to carefully select the composition of the fertilizer. This plant is afraid of an excess of nitrogen; for it, mixtures are chosen in which potassium and phosphorus prevail. It is permissible to use special fertilizers for fruitful crops. You can feed persimmons on the same principle as garden fruit trees - with nitrogen fertilizers at the beginning of growth, in spring, and from late spring to the end of flowering - with phosphate or phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, from the moment of the formation of fruits — only potash.
Cutting and forming room persimmons
So that indoor persimmon not only retains compactness, but also grows in the form of a densely branching, attractive plant, the decorativeness of which was equal to its benefit, you can not do without forming pruning.
It is better to start persimmon at a very young age. When the plants grow to 30-50 cm, be sure to pinch the top. In the future, bushes and trees are formed, leaving 2-3 skeletal apical shoots and, as the lateral branches grow, also limiting their number to 2–3.
For persimmons, shoots are usually left with a length of 30 to 40 cm, pinching the tops as soon as they begin to go beyond the norm. The rounded crown, which is created by constantly shortening the branches of the second order, is considered more natural and elegant for her. Formation can be carried out both by limiting the height and contours, and with a bet on the density and splendor of the crown.
In addition to forming pruning, persimmons will also need sanitary procedures. Removing dry, thinned, too thickening, excess branches will help maintain good plant health.
Transplant and substrate
And young plants, and at a considerable age, it is better to transplant persimmons always after the roots completely fill the substrate. The transplantation of this fruiting plant can only be carried out in spring, at the beginning of the active growth phase. Typically, indoor persimmons are transshipped, transplanted, in February-March.
For indoor persimmons, you can choose any universal substrate. Loose, non-compacting, breathable soil with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction is quite suitable for it. Of the purchased substrates, the soil for rhododendrons is considered optimal in structure. If the soil is prepared independently, then humus or compost, turf soil and peat are mixed in equal parts, adding sand, wood ash or bone meal for texture correction.
The persimmon transplant process must be very neat. The rhizome of the plant is not exposed, the earthen lump is preserved completely and simply transplanted into large pots.
Indoor persimmon is preferably grown with mulching of the soil. Decorative filling, bark, sawdust will help stabilize moisture and will protect the plant from overheating, hypothermia and drying out of the soil.
Diseases, pests and growing problems
Despite its status as a fruit exotic and quite capricious, indoor persimmon pleasantly pleases with its stability. The only thing that threatens plants is powdery mildew, but it usually appears with insufficient access to fresh air. Fighting this disease is necessary only with fungicide treatment.
Of the pests, persimmon can be annoyed only by scale insects, but usually they can be easily removed manually, providing protection against repeated spread by simple preventive spraying with insecticides.
Common growing problems:
- yellowing of the leaves as a result of waterlogging;
- stunting due to lack of space for root growth in a too close pot, from dampness;
- dropping leaves at atypical times after a sharp jump in temperature or aggressive drafts;
- slow growth and lack of growth of lateral shoots with insufficient feeding and soil depletion.
As for any other fruiting indoor shrub or tree, the main method of propagating persimmons, which makes it possible to get a good harvest, is considered to be the cultivation of seedlings with their subsequent vaccination.
Persimmon seeds are easy to harvest on your own. Any seeds from ripe fruits will do. When choosing fruits, it is advisable to pay attention to the most unpretentious, not with a smooth wax, but with a rough surface. Sometimes, for a greater percentage of germination, the fruits are frozen for several days. Seeds are extracted by gently washing them from the pulp, followed by drying.
Before sowing, persimmon seeds are soaked for several hours in a solution of any growth stimulants. This treatment allows you to simplify the process of germination through solid flaps of seeds.
Sowing is carried out to a depth of 1 cm, in a light nutrient substrate, in individual containers.Easy watering, covering with glass or film and heat are the main conditions for the appearance of tender shoots. On average, the process of germination in seeds is about 2 weeks. For crops, it is necessary to ensure regular ventilation and accurate watering (they are carried out only after the top layer of the soil has dried).
After the shoots appear, the shelter is removed, the plants are moved to diffused bright lighting. If the sprout does not lose a bone, you need to carefully open the sash with a sharp knife or needle, not trying to touch the plant. Young seedlings develop rapidly, need stable soil moisture and protection against hypothermia.
Transplantation into a new container is carried out only after the young plant has fully mastered the substrate in the previous one. Strongly increase the size of containers for persimmons is impossible. With an excess of substrate, the plant stops growth at the expense of root growth.
Persimmons can be grown without vaccination, expecting from 5 to 12 years, or even more, to potential fruiting, which may never start under not optimal conditions. But the most effective method for obtaining a persimmon crop on the windowsill is vaccination.
Seedlings inoculate when the plants reach a trunk thickness of 4-5 mm and a height of 15 or 20 cm. The scion from a healthy, already fruiting persimmon is inserted obliquely into the T-shaped incisions on the rootstock bark and tightly wrap around the vaccination site. Other grafting methods on fruit trees will do.
Dear readers! If you already grow persimmons at home, share your experience in the comments to this article. We will be very grateful!