"Apples in the snow ..."
The apple tree is a widespread fruit crop, due to its high adaptability to various soil and climatic conditions, high winter hardiness and drought tolerance, as well as resistance to pests and diseases.
© House Of Sims
Apple Tree (Latin - Malus) - a genus of deciduous trees and shrubs of the Pink family with spherical sweet or sour-sweet fruits.
Trees with a branched crown 2.5-15 m high. Branches are shortened (flowering), on which flower buds are laid, and elongated (growth). In wild species, thorns on branches. Petiole leaves, glabrous or pubescent, with falling or remaining stipules. Flowers (white, pink, red) in semi-umbrellas or shields.
The most common are home-grown or cultivated apple trees (Malus domestica), to which the majority of varieties cultivated in the world belong, sapwood, Chinese (Malus prunifolia), and low apple (Malus pumila).
Many species of apple trees are grown as ornamental plants in gardens and parks, used in field protection afforestation. All species are good melliferous. The wood of the apple tree is dense, strong, easy to cut and well polished; suitable for turning and joinery, small crafts
Small, up to 10 m tall, fruit-decorative trees, often with irregular, rounded crown, less often shrubs. The bark of the trunk is dark gray. Leaves - elliptical or oblong-ovate, up to 10 cm long, dark green in summer, yellow or reddish in autumn. Flowers up to 3-4 cm in diameter, fragrant, white, pink or carmine, on pubescent pedicels, collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences. Fruits are apple-shaped, in many species brightly colored, vary in shape and size. Inside the fetus there are 5 nests formed by leathery cusps with seeds; the flesh is formed due to an expanding, fleshy receptacle.
Choose apple tree seedling
The choice of seedling depends on the level of groundwater in your area. If the groundwater is below 3 meters, then the seedling can be selected on any stock (Rootstock - the root system and part of the stem to the vaccination site) - seed (vigorous), semi-dwarf, dwarf.
Seed stock - these are strong deep roots. The apple tree on it reaches a height of 7-8 meters (without pruning), lives long (50-70 or more years), gives a good harvest. It should be planted at a distance of at least 5-6 meters from other trees. True, if the apple tree is regularly cut and properly shaped, it can be no more than 3-4 meters in height.
On a site with groundwater above 2.5 meters from the surface, a tree on a seed rootstock, having reached the roots of water, will begin to feel bad, lose winter hardiness, produce low yields and may die completely. For such sites, seedlings on a semi-dwarf rootstock are selected. In the conditions of the Moscow Region, only some semi-dwarf stocks are suitable, for example, 54-118, 67-5-32.
When buying a plant, be sure to check with the seller what rootstock the apple tree of your choice. This is a test for his suitability: if he answers, then it’s really a specialist and you can buy plants from him fearlessly. The height of an adult tree on a semi-dwarf rootstock is 4-5 meters (without pruning), its roots are less deep, it lives 30-40 years. The yield from each tree is lower than on a tall rootstock, but if you plant apple trees denser, 4-5 meters from neighboring plants, then in the garden with one hundredth it will be approximately the same.
For areas with close groundwater (above 1.5 m), only varieties on a dwarf rootstock or spurian varieties (the so-called columnar apple trees) are suitable. Seedlings on a dwarf rootstock have the most superficial root system, they are short-lived (live for 15-20 years), low growth (up to 2-2.5 meters). They give little apple, but due to a very dense planting (2.5-3 meters between plants), the yield can be good. Column-shaped apple trees are planted at a distance of 1x1 or 0.5x2 meters. They require a lot of effort and attention from the gardener - they need to be carefully and regularly fed and watered.
Choosing a place to land
Apple trees love a lot of light, although hardy to the shade. Avoid places with close occurrence of groundwater and lowlands prone to frost. The apple tree grows well on different soils, with the exception of excessively alkaline or acidic soils, which require reclamation. The apple tree grows most successfully on sod-podzolic, gray forest and chernozem soils with moderate fertility and low acidity.
Planting pits must be prepared in advance, preferably at least a month before planting, in order to allow time for shrinkage of the soil. They dig up to a depth of 60 cm and a diameter of 1-1.2 m, mixing soil removed from the planting pit, with fertilizers, preferably of organic origin.
If earlier at this place other crops were grown and the soil was fertilized, there is no need to add new fertilizers. Excess fertilizer will stimulate excessive tree growth at the expense of yield.
Planting an apple tree in the sod area is carried out in a similar way with the addition of long-acting phosphorous fertilizers, such as bone meal (three handfuls per planting hole).
When and how to plant apple trees
In central Russia, an apple tree can be planted in spring in early May or in autumn in September. For a successful landing, it is important to consider a few simple recommendations.
The size of the planting pit should be sufficient to fit the roots of the seedling freely. When planting, the soil is carefully sprinkled, covering the roots, to ground level. In order not to burn the roots, you do not need to sprinkle them with fertilizers. It is important that the root neck of the seedling is 4-5 cm above ground level. When pouring in the soil, from time to time carefully compact the soil in the pit with your hands to ensure its good contact with the roots. After planting, the seedling is watered at the rate of 3-4 buckets of water under the apple tree.
Saplings grafted onto dwarf rootstocks (M9, M26 and M27) must be grown tied to stake during the life of the tree. The stakes should be strong, preferably oak, with a diameter of about 5 cm and a height of up to 1.8 m. The stake is driven into the planting pit so that about 60 cm of its length remains above the ground and that the gap between the stake and the seedling trunk is about 15 cm. The seedling to the stake is tied with soft twine with an interval of 30cm. Do not use wire or other materials that could damage the tree bark. In the first two years, it is necessary to periodically check that the twine is not tightly stretched around the trunk and does not cut into the bark as it thickens.
More vigorous varieties require attachment to stakes in the first two years after planting. Then the stakes can be removed.
With the exception of pruning, caring for an apple tree does not require much labor and time. The main attention should be paid to thinning ovaries and fruits. If this is not done, then the fruits will grow underdeveloped, green, with low taste. In addition, overloading the tree with fruits can lead to periodic fruiting, when the next year it will rest after a large harvest.
As soon as the ovaries have formed or the fruitlets look sufficiently formed, remove the central fruit from each bunch of fruits (usually five in one bunch). The central fruit is often lower in quality and has an irregular shape. Also remove all fruitlets with flaws or irregular shapes. If the apple tree is too overloaded, thin out each bunch, leaving one or two fruit in it. The distance between the beams should be at least 10 cm. Cordons and trees on the M9 rootstock need minimal thinning.
If, despite thinning, the load on the tree remains large, there is a risk of breakage under the weight of the pouring apples. Watch the situation and, if necessary, thinn out again, or strengthen the branches with props.
The ripeness of apples is determined by two signs: first of all, this is the acquisition by the fruits of the color and taste characteristic of the variety; the second is the appearance of the first signs of decay of healthy fruits.
Apples intended for storage should not have any damage to the skin or pulp. Damaged apples are susceptible to decay and during storage will pass rot spores to healthy fruits.
Please note that not all apple varieties are suitable for storage.. Only autumn and winter varieties are well stored. In them, consumer maturity occurs only after a certain period of time after harvesting: in autumn varieties after 15-30 days, and in winter varieties after 2-6 months, depending on the variety.
Apples are stored longer in well-ventilated areas. at an air temperature of 3 ° C and a relative humidity of 85-95%. Such conditions can be created in the cellar or underground.
Each apple is better to isolate from other fruits adjacent to it, wrapped in paper. You can peel the fruits with bulk material, for example, fresh wood chips, moss or sand, so that they do not touch each other.
Popular varieties of apples
It is not at all easy to determine the variety, since today in the world there are more than 20 thousand varieties of apple trees.
Antonovka is actually not a variety, but a variety that includes such varieties as Antonovka Tula, Aportovaya, Krasnobochka, Dessert, Krupnaya, One and a half pounds and others. They are consumed in autumn and early winter, apples are stored for up to 2-3 months. But in this group there is also a summer variety - Antonovka golden. Fruits - 120-150 g, from flat-round to oval conical shape, with a strong characteristic aroma; greenish yellow, sometimes with a pinkish blush or golden tan. The pulp is juicy, granular, tastes good. Winter hardiness and productivity are high. Scab resistance is above average.
Early winter consumption, fruits are stored until February. Winter hardiness is high. Scab-resistant, high-yielding. Fruits are medium in size, from 130 g to 160 g. The skin is light yellow with a bright raspberry blush all over the surface. The pulp is creamy, dense, very juicy.
Late winter consumption, fruits are stored until May-June. Winter hardiness is relatively high. Very resistant to scab. It brings a good harvest annually. Fruits from 130 to 200 g, greenish yellow, with a red blush. The pulp is dense, fine-grained, juicy, with a weak aroma.
Late Fall Consumption. Productivity is high annually. The fruits are small, up to 60-70 g. The skin is amber-yellow, with a slight blush. The pulp is juicy, dense, fine-grained. The taste is sweet and sour, very good.
Late winter consumption. Regularly gives a good harvest. The fruits are medium sized - 120-150 g. The skin is yellow with a bright red blurred blush. The pulp is creamy, juicy.
Autumn term of consumption. Winter hardiness is above average. Relatively resistant to scab. Productivity is high, regular. Fruits of medium size (130-140 g). The skin is yellow with red stripes. The pulp is white, dense, juicy.
Late summer consumption. Immune to scab. Brings a good harvest. Fruits of medium and above average size - 135-170 g. The skin is light yellow, with pink spots. The pulp is greenish, dense, juicy.
A variety of late summer consumption. Fruits are medium-sized (130-140 g), light yellow, with a bright red blush. The pulp is creamy, dense, very juicy, with a strong aroma. The taste is good, sweet and sour. Very winter-hardy and completely resistant to scab. Harvest gives high.
Diseases and Pests
Apple moth - one of the most dangerous pests of apple fruits, it also damages pear and quince.
Distributed everywhere. The butterfly is small, with a wingspan of 14-20 mm.
Adult caterpillars of the last age overwinter in silky cocoons under the lagged bark of trees, in cracks in the backwater, old containers, cracks in the soil, in fruit storage.
In spring, caterpillars pupate. Butterflies fly out after flowering apple trees. The female lays eggs on the smooth surface of leaves and fruits. Caterpillars appear 15-20 days after flowering of early varieties of apple trees. They are introduced into the fruit and, eating the flesh, make moves to the seed chambers in which they eat the seeds. Damaged fruits ripen, as it were, prematurely; most of them fall.
In the northern regions, the codling moth gives one generation, in the southern - two - three. The second and third generations are especially dangerous. In gardens infected with the moth, worm fruits often make up the majority of the harvest.
Control measures. In the northern areas of horticulture, fruit-bearing apple trees of summer varieties are sprayed with pesticides twice, winter - three. The first spraying is 15-20 days after flowering.
Apply one of the drugs (g per 10 liters of water): anti - 25% (20); Rogor (phosphamide) - 40% (20); Fozalon - 35% (20); chlorophos - 80% (20); trichloromethaphos - 50% (15); phthalafos - 20% (30), The plants are re-treated after 10-12 days. In years favorable for the development of the codling moth, the third spraying of winter varieties of apple trees 10-12 days after the second one with 85% sevine (15 g per 10 l of water) is not excluded.
Butterfly with white wings in black veins, wingspan 6.5 cm. Adult caterpillars are grayish-brown, up to 4.5 cm long, covered with hairs, three black and two brown stripes pass on the back, black head and legs. It damages all fruit trees, berries.
Young caterpillars hibernate in nests of leaves fastened by cobwebs and suspended from the crown of fruit trees.
Control measures: Removing winter nests from trees and shaking off tracks. Collection and destruction of ovipositions. Spraying plants during budding and at the time of exit of the caterpillars from the eggs. The treatment is carried out with infusions of wormwood, tobacco, chamomile pharmacy, biological preparations - Antobacterin, dendrobacellin (dry powder, titer 30 billion spores. - 60-100 g, wetting powder, titer 60 billion spores, 30-50 g). In an extreme case, - with insecticides, - 10% ke and s.p., malathion (75-90 g), 10% ke isp benzophosphate (60 g), 25% ke.orovikurt (10 g).
Green apple aphid: Damages apple, pear, mountain ash. Insect with incomplete transformation. Winters in the egg stage. As a result of damage to aphids, the leaves are deformed and die, the shoots are bent and can dry out. Places of damage in the second half of summer are covered with soot deposits and are clearly visible.
Control measures: Removal of basal shoots and fatliquoring shoots with wintering aphid eggs. Cleaning the trees from the old bark, followed by whitewashing them with milk of lime or mortar / lime with lime (2-3 KS of clay and I to, ’lime to I.) frets). Allowed early spring spraying (before budding) nitrafen (200-300 /.). At the beginning of budding, the treatment is carried out with infusions of tobacco or other insecticidal plants, with a soap solution. Of the pesticides, karbofos (10% K.E. and S.P., 75-90 g), 25% K, E. rovikurt (10 g), 10% C-P can be used. benzophosphate (60 g). If necessary (with a large number of aphids), the treatment is repeated in the phase of isolation of the buds. It is strongly recommended that an environmentally friendly and effective tool is the collection of ladybugs and their release in the garden.
Apple tree scab and pears are one of the most dangerous, ubiquitous fungal diseases. It affects leaves, flowers, fruits, and the pear has young shoots, especially in years with wet and warm in spring and summer. In areas with arid climates is much less common. On the leaves affected by scab, first appear translucent spots with a characteristic greenish-brown bloom. Later, with a severe defeat, the leaves die. Black or gray-black spots appear on the fruits. The fruits often crack (especially in a pear), and with an early lesion they become one-sided. When a young ovary is afflicted, its mass may fall. Frost resistance of trees severely affected by scab is sharply reduced.Small swellings appear on the bark of the shoots of the pear, and in some cases the apple tree, the bark crackes and peels, a sore ulcer appears, often leading to the death of the shoot.
Control measures: The focus on scab control should be on protecting trees from primary ascospore infection and curbing the spread of the disease in the summer. Destruction of the wintering stage of scab is to a certain extent achieved by autumn (after leaf fall) by digging up the row-spacings and digging up near-stem circles, since the bulk of the fallen leaves is buried in the soil. In small gardens, the practice of collecting and destroying fallen leaves and mummified fruits. The collected leaves can be buried in the ground, composted, used on bedding or burned. It should be remembered that in leaves lying in a dry place or well covered by the ground, spore does not form, and such leaves do not pose a danger in relation to the spread of scab. After collecting the leaves, dig the soil carefully. In gardens heavily affected by scab, early spring before buds open, trees and soil are abundantly sprayed with pesticides that destroy scab spores. To do this, use DNOC or nitrafen. To obtain the desired effect, it is necessary to moisten the fallen leaves well. This spray is called eradicating. It is also aimed at the destruction of the wintering stages of pests (eggs of the apple thistle, aphids, etc.). To protect leaves, fruits and shoots from damage, trees are sprayed with fungicides several times during the entire growth period. The presence of fungicides on the surface of young leaves and growing fruits, even in very small quantities, causes the death of germinating spores. It is better to spray trees before the rain or immediately after it, since spores can germinate only in the presence of drip moisture. Of the chemicals for scab control, Bordeaux is used, as well as other fungicides that are allowed for use in household plots. At the beginning of bud blooming (green cone phase), trees are sprayed (blue spraying) with a 3 - 4% Bordeaux fluid or in the extension - isolation phase buds apply 1% Bordeaux liquid. The second spraying is carried out immediately after flowering with one of the following fungicides: 1% Bordeaux liquid, cineb, copper chloroxide, captan, phthalan, cuprosan, colloidal sulfur, etc. Of the new preparations, they are well characterized for combating scab apple and pear chorus and speed . In addition, on the apple tree, it is possible to apply such prepaoates as Vectra, cuproxate, mycosan. All these drugs can also be used to combat powdery mildew of apple trees. The third time the trees are sprayed 15 to 20 days after flowering (at the same time as spraying against the apple codling moth. It should be noted that Bordeaux liquid and copper oxychloride during summer spraying can cause a net on the fruits and burn leaves.
The apple tree is the beauty and pride of our gardens. The apple tree is beautiful in spring in bloom, and in autumn with poured fruits. This culture is widespread in the gardens of central Russia. Apples on our table all year round: in summer, summer varieties, then autumn, and in winter days, winter varieties decorate our table. No fruits are kept fresh for as long as apples — until spring, or even until new crops.