Currant growing technique
Site selection: for planting blackcurrant bushes, you need to select areas with sufficiently moist loamy or sandy loamy soil, with a flat surface or small slopes, since its root system is strong, but lies shallow and can be spreading. The plant stings in fertile soil, responds well to fertilizers. which should be applied annually, it can grow better than other berry plants on cold slopes. For planting red and white currants, you need to choose well-lit areas with a southern slope. The soil should be previously freed from weeds, especially from rhizomes.
© Jerzy Opioła
Currants in spring start to grow early, so spring plantings are made in the early stages, before buds open. Fruits are mainly annual growths. In this regard, fruiting moves over the years to the periphery of the bush. The most fruitful are the branches of black currant up to 4 -5 years. Old branches give a negligible yield, so they should be cut, thereby ensuring better shoot development. Bushes should be cut annually. A currant bush is formed so that it has a sufficient number of shoots and young branches of different ages and good development.
In the second year after planting, in the spring, even after frost, in the bushes, all annual, weak shoots are cut out at the very surface of the earth. Of the developed basal shoots, 3-4 of the most highly developed and well-placed shoots are left.
Then, each year, 3-4 most powerful, well-located root shoots are left in the bush until the bush has 15 to 20 strong, well-branched branches of different ages, evenly spaced in the bush. The formation of a bush in black currant should be completed at the age of 4-6 years, in red at the age of 6-8 years.
At the end of the formation, the oldest branches are removed annually from the fruiting bushes, leaving the same amount of the strongest annual root shoots replaced. In blackcurrant, young shoots left for substitution are shortened by one third. red currants do not do this, since the main fruiting in them is concentrated in the upper part of the shoot.
Currants propagated by dividing bushes, layering. cuttings. currant plantation can exist in one place from 15 to 20 years, after which the bushes are uprooted and the area is used for garden crops.
Extracts from the diary of observations
September 15 - 17: the plot was plowed with fertilizer. Manure was introduced at the rate of 6-10 kg of organic fertilizer per 1 sq. Km. m and mineral fertilizers: 200 g of phosphate and 20 g of potassium salt. The plowed land was not harrowed, but left in the strata until spring.
April 20: the plot was buried in 2-3 tracks
April 25: each bush of a seedling (2 seedlings of black and 1-red currant) was carefully inspected and removed damaged roots to a healthy place. Then the roots of the seedlings were dipped in a creamy solution (clay + mullein) and planted obliquely and deeper than in the nursery by 3-5 cm. This will give additional root formation, and, therefore, the plant’s nutrition will increase. The distance between the bushes was 2.5 m between rows and about 1.5 m in rows between plants. Planted bushes were watered at the rate of one bucket for all bushes. The surface of the hole after seeping water into the soil was covered with a thin layer of dry earth.
In the period from May 15, the beginning of greening of the bushes is observed: the buds are swollen.
May 25-26: Active flowering of bushes is observed.
June 6-7: The plants were fed with a solution of slurry.
© H. Zell
June 10-13: A full filling of berries is observed. On the seedlings of red currant berries more than expected. Despite the fact that the seedlings are quite young, there are also a sufficient number of berries on the blackcurrant bushes, although very few are observed on the currant bushes bearing fruit for more than a year. This is due, first of all, not to such good care as to experienced bushes.
June 16: The first ripening of red currant berries is observed. On the brush - a variety of colors
June 27: The first ripening of blackcurrant berries is observed. We collect the first crop in a state of full ripeness. We collect red currant berries with brushes, black berries - one at a time. It is necessary to collect berries in the morning when the dew dries, before the onset of heat.
July 17: the last berry picking. The total amount of blackcurrant bush collected from the bush at the age of 1 year was 2 kg of berries, from 2 other blackcurrant bushes -2 kg.
Currant cultivation was performed by high school students in their garden plots using pre-developed technologies. It should be noted that the experiment was a success, since the yield of seedlings at the age of 1 year in the fruiting stage was quite high.
The total amount of blackcurrant collected from a bush at the age of 1 year was 2 kg of berries, from 2 other blackcurrant bushes -2 kg. Using advanced agricultural technology, at least 4 kg of berries and more can be obtained from each currant bush. Currant growing experience will be continued.